Tuesday, January 1, 2019

Introduction of My Thesis: Indonesian Labor and ASEAN Economic Community 2015


The fate of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asia Nations) after Cold War (1947-1991) underwent the tough era. Crisis by crisis attacked ASEAN at that time. ASEAN’s tough era is started by economy crisis in the mid-1997. In Indonesia, the crisis in this period is a toughest having attacked the stability of Indonesian economy. This crisis happened suddenly when domestic economic growth rate arose rapidly reaching average growth around 7 percent per year during 1990-1996 and internal and external condition which is conducive enough. The extreme crisis was caused by the fall of the rupiah exchange rate against the US Dollar.[1]  Then it continued the environment crisis being caused by forest fires in several parts of Indonesia, specifically in Sumatra and Kalimantan between 1997-1998. Besides, the crisis of humanity and security rised in Timor Timur after the defining of notion in August 31st 1999. The crisis of leadership also rised after the stepping down of President Soeharto from his regime of power at May 21st 1998 and the crisis being caused by ASEAN members’ expansion into 10 countries in 1999.
Based on those crisis, in this period ASEAN’s relevance started to be questioned. ASEAN got various critics coming from both internal and external due to the decline of ASEAN’s relevance as international organization. ASEAN had been assumed by various circles as not effective organization and even called as organization starting to go down (sunset organization).[2]
To answer the challenges, in The Ninth ASEAN Summit in Bali at November 7th 2003, ten ASEAN’s leader namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, Thailand, Philipine, Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar and Laos agreed on the establishment of ASEAN Community or Bali Concord II. In the establishment of ASEAN Community, there are three pillars of cooperation that have been agreed namely ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), ASEAN Political-Security Community (ASPC) and ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC). ASEAN Community’s programs are one of agreements among the leaders of South East Asian countries for future regional integration which will facilitate new cosmopolitan.[3]
The establishment of AEC is in line with ASEAN Vision 2020 (based on 2007 agreement) in economy sector aiming to transform ASEAN into stable, prosperous, and competitive region by the equity of economic development, reduced poverty, and the gap of social-economy.[4]
To strengthen ASEAN Community agreement, in the Thirteenth ASEAN Summit in Singapore (2007), entire ASEAN members signed ASEAN Charter that aims: ”Commited to intensifying community building through enhanced regional cooperation The ASEAN Security Community, The ASEAN Economic Community, and The ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.”[5]
AEC’s achievment through the creation of single market and production base is aimed for expansion effort through regional integration to reach omptimum economic scale. The steps of liberal integration and strengthening ASEAN itself become strategies to reach overall or individually strong competitiveness. AEC is also expected to be able to make ASEAN stronger in facing international negotiation. Through economic integration process, ASEAN will be a region liberating both good and service trading and flow of production factors (capital and labor).[6]
AEC also aims to increase ASEAN countries’ competitiveness at international level and  to be able to compete with economic power of Asian countries such as China, India and Japan in alluring the entry of foreign investment. 2015 is a significant milestone at ASEAN’s integration agenda when economically ASEAN region had got significant progress and prosperity.
One of supporting pillars in establishing AEC is employement aspect. The presence of AEC will make ASEAN as large region that will give the widest opportunities for anyone wanting to work and will give chances and also challenge to job seekers’ future. They will have freedom and simplicity to choose place to work according to the skills they have. Therefore, with the excellence of ASEAN working age is expected being able to compete with global labor market so that it can boost the development of ASEAN economy in the global arena.  
Nonetheless, besides the employement opportunity, there are challenges alsi in AEC 2015 that is noteworthy. One of the challenges faced by Indonesia now is weak quality of human resources. Based on Badan Pusat Statistik data per August 2016, the weekness of labor force which most of them passed elementary school still around 52 million people or equal with 43% Indonesian labor force. This thing must be particular attention to the Indonesian government to escalate Indonesian education quality. Another obstacle is high unemployed rate reached 5,61% in 2016.[7]    
With the presence of AEC, foreign labor coming from neighboring countries are free to enter Indonesia. Indonesian society right now is facing with global environment whether they want it or not have to be faced because global environment will affect on Indonesian society either directly or indirectly. In terms of facing global competition, competent human resource is the significant aspect that must be utilized as much as possible. The abundace of Indonesian labor force shoud be balanced by quality of labor in order that this huge opportunity can be beneficial for Indonesian economy. Therefore, Indonesia is able to catch up with other countries, specifically in ASEAN.
 In AEC Blueprint, it is generally called that to support continuity of good, service and invesment trading made in accordance with general regulations by host countries, hence it is needed labor mobility or entry facility for the movement of labor. In this term, ASEAN will facilitate visa publishing and employment pass for professional labors and skilled labors working in sectors related to international trade and investment activities in the ASEAN region.[8]
To support service integration, ASEAN is doing various initiatives in employement field. One of which is the establishment of Mutual Recognition Arrangements MRA. MRA is an agreement recognized by entire ASEAN countries to admit one another and to accept some or all aspects of the result of the assesment such as test result in the form of certificate. This condition is reached by reducing good and service non-tariff barrier. According to Tullao and Cortez, the MRA establishment aimes to create accreditation procedures and mechanisms to reach similarity and to admit international difference in terms of education, training, experience, and license requiremets for professional practice.[9]
So far, ASEAN has agreed eight professional sectors included in MRA namely engineering services (2005), tourism services (2005), architect services (2007), nursing services (2006), surveying services (2007), medical/doctor services (2008), dentist services (2008) and accountant services (2008).[10]
Based on this background, the writer is interested in researching about Indonesian labor problems in term of facing economy liberalitation. Therefore, this research titled “THE POLICY IMPLEMENTATION OF INDONESIAN GOVERNMENT  TO ESCALATE LABOR COMPETITIVENESS IN ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY”.

Problem of Research
1.      How does policy of Indonesian government escalate labor competitiveness face ASEAN Economic Community?
2.      What is determinant sector of Indonesian service and labor competition?

Purpose of Research
1.      Explaining quality of policy having been done by Indonesian government to escalate the competitiveness of Indonesian labor in facing ASEAN Economic Community integration.
2.      Defining determinant factors of Indonesian service and labor competitiveness.

Advantage of Research
Academically, yield of research is expected to be able to add knowledges about implementation of Indonesian labor policy in ASEAN Economic Community. The author also expected that yield of research is able to be a thought contributution scientific literature in Faculty of Social and Politic State Islamic University of Jakarta.

Literature Review
            To distinguish author’s study with other studies, it needs literature reviews that are useful to make sure position and significance in the context of overall broader research. The author found one of journals titled “Menakar Pengaruh Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN 2015 Terhadap Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia” written by Atep Abdurrofiq. In his journal Atep explained that with its demographic adventage, Indonesia is very likely to get the biggest profitfrom more than 600 millions of ASEAN population. AEC opens opportunties for investors around ASEAN with an asumption that Indonesia is a potential market so Indonesia economic growth will significantly go forward. Besides, Indonesia is als able to enlarge their invesment in ASEAN regions so that production and economy capability are getting better. Nevertheless, this condition can be contra-productive. AEC agenda is predicted that it is able to bring out exploitation risk. Big scale exploitation of nature resources probably happens because Indonesian regulations is not really binding so that ecosystem destruction will happen because of foreign companies in Indonesia. Therefore, according to Atep, exploitation risk must be anticipated by particular regulative restrictions such as violation of foreigners to afford and to own the land, banning on foreigners to employ the locals less than 60 percent of total workers, and other regulations which can exploit public interest so that AEC will be opportunities for national economic progress.[11]
Atep’s writing explains that with following AEC agenda, Indonesian environment would be damaged because of the arrival of foreign companies to indonesia. Hence, Atep tries to give solutions by making strict laws to environmental protection in order that market liberalization does not give negative impact to the environment. In the other side, the author focuses on study to the impacts or consequences of economy accepted Indonesia in its participation in AEC. The author describes how Indonesian labor prospect will be and what Indonesian government should do to reach ASEAN Vision.
The next literature review the author took is a study written by Puji Nia Rachmatika titled Analisis Kesiapan Indonesia dalam Menghadapi Kerjasama ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (Tinjauan Terhadap Daya Saing Industri Tekstil Indonesia). This study analyzes the readiness of Indonesia in textile competition sector in facing ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA). Purpose of the research is to analyze how readiness of Indonesia faces ACFTA especially in textile industry. From this research, Puji found that Indonesian textile industry is facing various supporting obstacles affecting competitiveness such as labors problem, expensive energy, unconducive infrastructure, the lack of rejuvenation of textile machinery government’s policies and regulations and coordination among departements become the cause of unhealty indonesian textile industry and it has not been able to compete with China in ACFTA. In labor factor, Indonesian weaknesses are high labor cost and lack of competitiveness in terms of the national textile industry. To answer those challenges, It nees human resources and high labor expertise. It can be reached with the establishment of formal education institution, centre of craftsmanship, technical training, and marketing.[12] The difference between Puji’s study and the author’s sudy is level of research area. The author reviews the readiness of Indonesian labor in facing AEC in terms of labor sector. In this work, the author explains Indonesia’s preparations in terms of human resources and regulations applied by the government.       
            The author also found literature review related with this study about labor market in the book titled Pasar Tenaga Kerja Indonesia: Kasus Sektor Konstruksi written by Kartini Sjahrir. This book tries to answer question namely about migration and rural area, urban area and construction sector and role of Indonesian government in changing rural area and urban area. This book specifically describes government policies in developing rural area and urban area. For the improvement of rural area, New Orde Era government did self-sufficiency in rice proclaimed since the 1970’s which has been able to escalate rce production. The development also happened in urban areas where the development affected to the labor migration from rural area to urban area. In his work, the researcher found the development urban center had been able to create jobs, especially for unskilled labor for example in transportation sector, becak rider can have net income around Rp 5.000 per day. Also in trading sector, travelling salesman (pedagang keliling) can earn very well around Rp 6.000 per day. Those facts prove that urbanization affected to the rising of better wage offer especially for unskilled labors. Rural areas are main source of labor supply for construction sector in urban area. Wage earned by construction labors is relatively higher than that of by them worked in either the rice fiedls or sugar cane plantations.[13] From Kartini’s study, the author delves that migrasi has had positive impact for economu specifically giving high wage to unskilled labor. In AEC also happens labor exchanges from member countries so that labor market pattern in New Orde Era  can be repeated so that both sides are able to get advantages from AEC policies.
            In terms of labor liberalization, the author found study result titled Pemetaan Pekerja Terail Indonesia dan Liberalisasi Jasa ASEAN being done by ASEAN Study Center Faculty of Social and Politic cooperating with Badan Pengkajian kementerian Luar Negeri Republik Indonesia. This study was done by Makmur Keliat, Ph. D, Asra Virgianita, MA, Shofwan Al-Banna, Ph. D, and Agus Catur Aryanto S.Sos. Focus of this study is labor liberalization in one of AEC agendas namely Mutual Recognition Arrangements (MRA). This research reviews eight sectors having been agreed MRA. This research found facts that if we see the trade balance of services, Indonesia continously has large deficit. Import value of service is doubled of export value of Indonesian services. In many sectors, the entry of migrant workers is deemed necessary as the gap between the needs of professionals in a sector is not sufficient for domestic professionals. From eight MRA sectors, generally the quantity of human resources in almost whole sectors have a shortage of professional workers. This problem is caused by the lack of professional labor distribution whose majority of human resources are concentrated in Java especially Jakarta. In the other side, migrant workers also are not sure to resolve this problem because precisely it will gain competition in a tight competition. So, it can be concluded that Makmur and colleague’ study is highly relevant with this research so that it helps the author to develop this research. By the journey of AEC, This study is expexted being able to prove new findings about Indonesian labor and developing study which have been done by Makmur and colleagues.[14]

Method of Research
            This research uses descriptive-analytical method which is study to find a fact with accurate interpretation and anlysis is intended for testing hipothesis and conducting deeper interpretation in relations.[15] The research uses literary study such as documents having been collected to know how far research science has developed and how far the conclussion can be found and degeneralitation having been made so that the situation is able to be obtained.[16]
Research data sources are collected from literary research such as textbook, journal, bulletin, and annual review which discuss about ASEAN relation and Indonesian politic. Data sources are also collected from direct interviews with policy actors such as Edo Amrullah as a head of law firm of Employement Minister and Aris Hermanto As a head of Stabdard Kompetency Division. The author also interviewed Arsis Arif Mundayat as an ASEAN human right reasearcher. This study is based on Academic Guidence of Fakulty of Social and Politic.

Systematic of Research
            In Chapter I, the author explains background of problem and question of problem, advantages and aims of research, literature review as author’s reference to related studies method of research and systematic of research.
            In Chapter II, the author explains theoritical framework as conceptual foundation in dissecting study that will be written.
            In Chapter III, the author focuses on general description of development started from Selayang Pandang ASEAN until the establishment of ASEAN Community. Then the author explains generan description of ASEAN Economic Community, economy condition, labor and ASEAN human resource. At the last, in this chapter the author expalins about the concept of labor liberalization.
            In Chapter IV, the author conducts a analysis about Indonesian government’s policies in escalating labor competitiveness in ASEAN Economic Community.
            In the last Chapter, the author redescribes finding from Chapter IV to conclude overall form the findings of research and describing recommendations for next study.

[1] Tulus Tambunan, Krisis Ekonomi dan Masa Depan Reformasi, (Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia, 1998), 1-2.

[2] P. L. E Priatna, ed., Indonesia dan Ketua ASEAN 2011: Mewujudkan Komunitas ASEAN di Tengah Komunitas Global, (Jakarta: Mata Elang Enterprise, 2012), 108.
[3] Aris Arif Mundayat, “The Marginalizen In Malaysia: Human Rights Predicaments and The Future Challenge Of ASEAN Integration” dalam Azmi Sharom, dkk., Human Rights And Peace In Southeast Asia Series 5: Pushing The Boundaries, Southeast Asia Human Rights Studies Network (SEAHRN), (Agustus 2016), 97-118.
[4] AEC 2015: Progress and Key Achievments, accessed at December 15th  2016 on www.aseansec.org, 3.
[5] Direktorat Jendral Kerjasama ASEAN, ASEAN Selayang Pandang, (Jakarta, t.p., 2007), 30.
[6] Sjamsul Arifin and colleagues, ed., Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN: Memperkuat Sinergi ASEAN Di Tengah Kompetisi Global, (Jakarta: PT. Kompas Gramedia, 2009), 10-11.
[7] Badan Pusat Statistik, Tingkat Pengangguran Terbuka (TPT), accessed November 18th 2016 on https://www.bps.go.id/linkTabelStatis/view/id/1904.
[8] Sjamsul Arifin and colleagues, Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN, 245.
[9] Sjamsul Arifin and colleagues, Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN, 252.
[10] Bulletin Kementerian Luar Negeri, Masyarakat ASEAN: Membidik Peluang MEA Edisi 7 Maret 2015., accessed at December 15th 2016 dari www.kemlu.go.id, 8.
[11] Atep Abdulrofiq, Menakar Pengaruh MEA 2015 terhapap Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia, accessed at November 5th  2016 on  https://www.academia.edu/9997959, 7-8.
[12] Puji Nia Rachmatika, Analisis Kesiapan Indonesia dalam Menghadapi Kerjasama ASEAN-China Free Trade Area, (Jakarta: Skripsi Strata I UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2011), 94-96.
[13] Kartini Sjahrir, Pasar Tenaga Kerja Indonesia: Kasus Sektor Konstruksi, (Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti, 1995), 230-234.
[14] Makmur Keliat amd colleagues, Pemetaan Pekerja Terampil dan Liberalisasi Jasa ASEAN, (Depok: ASC FISIP UI, 2013).
[15] Moh. Nazir, Metode Penelitian, (Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia, 1988), 105.
[16] Nazir, Metode Penelitian, 112.

Tuesday, December 25, 2018


by Irsan Ardiyansyah
as ordered by my dad

Who doesn’t know Kampung Inggris lying in Pare, Kediri Regency? I am sure that most of students at least have heard Kampung Inggris. Before explaining about my experience when I was there, I am going to explain what Kampung Inggris actually is by telling its brief history.
In 1977, Kampung Inggris was founded by Mr. Kalend Osen, the founder of the first course in Kampung Inggris called BEC (Basic English Course). Mr. Kalend Osen was a student from Kutai Kartanegara who studied in Modern Boarding School Gontor, Ponorogo, East Java. Long story short, he left the school because he couldn’t afford the tuition. In that situation, his mate advised him to learn to KH Ahmad Yazid who mastered eight foreign languages. Afterward, he started to live and to learn in Darul Falah Boarding School, Singgahan Village, which is owned by KH. Yazid. Mr. Kalend started to teach when two students from IAIN Sunan Ampel asked them to learn English in order to pass their examination. Two months later, surprisingly the students reported that he passed their examination. After that success, people-to-people promotion happened and it became the beginning of the first class in the history of Kampung Inggris Pare.
Mr. Kalend has struggled for about ten years to organize BEC and at last in the 1990’s many BEC’s alumnus are motivated to found their own English course to accommodate a number of students that wanted to study in Kampung Inggris. The development of the courses increases more and more up to now.
Now, in Kampung Inggris, there are about 500 English courses teaching many skills of English such as grammar, speaking, pronunciation, etc. and also preparation for test such as TOEFL, IELTS, TOEIC, etc. And, each courses has different advantage in skill, and if you want to take programs there, you have to ask people who have experience and knowledge about some courses before. For example The Daffodils is a well-known course which has more competent in speaking skills. It is different from Kresna which has more competent in grammar skills.
Commonly, every courses obligates the students or members to speak English. And if you are in Pare, you can see many people presentating in the public space such us café, food stale, curb and other hustles in order to develop members’ self-esteem in english speaking skill.  
Because of its popularity, Kampung Inggris is able to open business opportunities for the locals so you can see foodstale, café/restaurant, camp, boarding houses built by the villagers around Kampung Inggris. Not only those business, but the locals also establish other needs of the comers such as bicycle and motorbike rent, souvenir store, and travel agent, etc. in order to support learning process and learning environment for the comers coming from various regions of Indonesia or even from other countries. All day long we can see people (commonly teenagers) travel to the course or their homestay by bicycle or on foot while bringing bag or just carrying books.     
When I arrived in Pare, at March 27th, I felt confused. I have never gone to this kind of place while a lot of people learn and study to reach their dreams through learning English. It was about 9 months staying in Pare, Kediri Regency and I feel the time flies faster than usual. I met many friends from many regions of Indonesia, from Aceh to Papua with various backgrounds and various ages. Because of that meeting, I felt comfortable more and more.
When I was there, I didn’t stay in one place. I stayed in three different places because of my need. My first is Gaza Camp. My brother told me that Gaza Camp applies the strict rules for its member. There is 24 hours speaking area in every single place in that camp. As a Gaza Members, we have to obey the rules, so that if we are not obey the rules, we will get jumping into the river which is near from that camp or become “blacker” which means you have to do everything what your friends want such as making a cup of coffee, cleaning their room, etc. 
Otherwise, the Gaza Camp has two programs in a day, firstly after dawn prayer at 5 am and secondly after maghrib prayer at 6 pm. Everyday has different topic such as speaking, grammar, reading Quran in thursday night and gathering for all of camp’s members in friday night. Those activities are new for me because I’ve never felt those habitual before. I’m sure that those new activities are able to train us to be more discipline and more diligent.
I felt very different habitual between in my home and in the camp. In my home, most of the time I stay up in midnight for doing anything which not really useful for me such as watching football, watching youtube and many things. But when I came to Pare, time by time those habitual changed. In 11 pm I’ve already felt sleepy because many activities start from 5 am until 6.30 pm. Otherwise, I took morning program in course at 5.30 am, it means after waking up at 4 am, immediately I prepare for the my programs. And then sometimes I took a nap after morning program. I don’t know why I don’t like to take afternoon program. It’s very seldom for me to take program in afternoon because some reasons, such as the weather in Pare is hot so that make me lazy to have programs in afternoon. So, mostly I took programs around 5.30 until 12 am.
My pronunciation tutor, Mr Nurmahmudi told me that, You could get at least three things in Kampung Inggris. Firstly, you will meet many friends because a lot of people come from many regions. One period in Kampung Inggris is two weeks and every period you will meet and will acquainted with other people. So, it means I have met hundreds of people when I was there. With many friends, I could share one another about our programs, homestay, purposes and many things. Secondly, you will definitely get new knowledge, not only about English but also experiences because of your meeting with other people from other regions and other backgrounds.  Thirdly, you will get new habitual. Common transportation to mobilize in Kampung Inggris is a bicycle. I used to see many people move and travel by cycling to run their activities. Bicycle is a common transportation that is used by every single person to travel from one place to another place. That is what I did as well. To afford a bike, you should rent it with various prices by paying around Rp 50.000 to Rp 150.000. It depends on bike condition or bike type. There are three types of bike namely sepeda kumbang (having a basket in its frontage and used commonly by the students), fixie bike (having little wheel) and mountain bike.
I was lucky. When my brother, Reza, was in Kampung Inggris, he bought a second fixie red bike for Rp 500.000 in the bike rentals. So I did not rent a bike as my brother gave me his bike to me. Although the distance between my camp to my course is so far, I liked cycling, because in my opinion, cycling can make me healthier.
During staying in Pare, I took many programs in many courses. The program I took when I first came to Pare is Grammar in Kresna. Grammar is highly significant for basic learner because it is basic from all English skills such as speaking, writing, reading and listening. In my opinion, it  is useless if you just directly study about speaking or other skills before understanding grammar first. To make a foundation the other skills, firstly I focused on grammar for 4 months having 4 levels started gradually from Basic, Pre-Intermediate, Intermediate and Advanced. After I spend 4 months in grammar, I continuously took speaking programs in many courses in the Daffodils with directly taking intermediate speaking class. I was feeling lucky because I stayed in camp obligating all members to speak English so I am able to practice my speaking skill by using methods and theories I got form the speaking programs. To improve my speaking skill, I used to learning by myself through movies, youtube and music. Those are the common ways that every tutor usually suggests in order to make his or her students understand more easily.  
  After finishing my speaking program, I focused on TOEFL program in Elfast. At that time, I took TOEFL Camp program facilitating its students to stay in Elfast’s Camp so that the students are totally able to focus to the program. Because I have studied grammar, it was not too difficult for me to grasp the TOEFL’s structure materials. I just had to learn more about listening and reading comprehension.
Then, I spent my last month to take private writing class. For me, writing skill is the important one which can be highly needed for long term learning process. If you go overseas for your post-graduate or work, you definitely need this skill to support your career. This writing class was taught by Mr. Musa. He is a well-known tutor in Kampung Inggris in writing skills. It is proven that some people said that he reached band score 9 in IELTS’ writing section.
In Pare, you will be faced with the best tutors having finished their post-graduate in overseas universities. For example Miss Jun having been teaching grammar for writing, TOEFL and IELTS for fifteen years. Even though she is an alumnus from one of United States’ universities, instead she made her own course. She prefers to teach rather than to work in the other place. And she always imagines someday her students can go overseas for studying like she used to do.
Another tutor I have met is Mr. Ahdan. He is a Sundanese having passed his master degree in Leiden University, Netherlands. Due to his work hard and motivation, he was able to continue his master of law there. It can inspire many people specifically his students in Leiden Institute, the course he made. Although he is a master of law, with his passion, he is also able to master various English skills. The good thing that he has is recommending his students to use many book as reference in order to make his students compare the books and avoid misconception in learning English process. The more references we read, the more understand we are.
When I needed time to refresh, sometime I used to travel to Malang because I have a cousin living there. The weather of Malang is colder than that of Kediri. Malang is surrounded by four big mountains such as Mount Bromo, Mount Arjuna Mount Kawi and Mount Semeru. Because it lies in mountainous area, Malang and Batu have many tourism places to be visited. We can say Malang is the favorite one for whoever wants to refresh and to calm down their mind.   
By this writing, I try to ask people wanting to study at least more than 6 months. You should sacrifice your time to do this thing in order to be focus in learning process. If you just spend less than six months, you will get less English knowledge also. Then, because of the supporting environment, it is highly recommended for all circles or all backgrounds wanting improve their English skill to reach their dreams such us continuing the study, looking for better job or even just refreshing.
That is all of my short story or short review about Kampung Inggris. Hopefully this short review is able to be beneficial for all. Thank you.